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Which of the following documents are likely to have legal standing? Select TWO that apply:

  • A. Requisition
  • B. Estimate
  • C. Quotation
  • D. Request for information
  • E. Tender

Answer: C,E


A quotation and a tender are both firm offers which have legal standing to the offeror. Tenders are more detailed than quotations and will include quality aspects as well as prices.

LO 1, AC 1.1 & AC 1.2


Which of the following is an example of liquidated damages clause?

1. "In the event of a delay to the Offshore Installation Completion Date as per the Contract Schedule for which Contractor is solely responsible, Contractor shall pay to Company 0.25% per day of delay, subject to a maximum of 10% of the Initial Contract Price."

2. "If Seller breaches its obligation to deliver goods in accordance with the schedule provided for in this contract, Seller shall pay Buyer $x per day for each day of delay"

3. "The Contractor shall defend and hold the Buyer, its officers, officials, employees and volunteers harmless from any and all claims, injuries, damages, losses or suits including attorney fees, arising out of or in connection with the performance of this Agreement, except for injuries and damages caused by the sole negligence of the Buyer."

4. "The contract is subjected to delay remedies. The amount will be agreed by both parties during the delivery"

  • A. 1 and 3 only
  • B. 3 and 4 only
  • C. 1 and 2 only
  • D. 2 and 4 only

Answer: C


Liquidated damages, also referred to as "liquidated and ascertained damages" (LADs) are damages whose amount the parties designate during the formation of a contract[2] for the injured party to collect as compensation upon a specific breach (e.g. late performance). In supply contracts and work contracts, the liquidated damages clause often take form as known damages to be paid per day delayed. Number 1 and 2 are examples of this clause.


- Liquidated damages

- CIPS study guide 158-159

LO 3, AC 3.2


Which of the following is an invitation to treat?

  • A. Tender bid
  • B. Invoice
  • C. Price list
  • D. Purchase order

Answer: C


An invitation to treat is an action inviting other parties to make an offer to form a contract. These actions may sometimes appear to be offers themselves, and the difference can sometimes be difficult to determine. The distinction is important because accepting an offer creates a binding contract while "accepting" an invitation to treat is actually making an offer.

One simple test to distinguish an offer and an invitation to treat is to ask what this statement will become when it is accepted. Now we apply this test to four options:

- Tender bid: Tender bid is submitted by a supplier to an invitation to tender from the buyer. It states the specific quantity, price and other elements. If buyer accepts the bid, there will be a contract between them. Therefore, a tender bid is an offer.

- Purchase order: Purchase order which is sent by a buyer will state the items, the quantity, the price and terms and conditions. If supplier accepts the purchase order, there will also be a contract between two parties. It is also an offer.

- Price list: Price list is prepared by a supplier. The price list often states the items and unit price. If a buyer accepts it, the contract has not yet been formed since the contract scope has not yet been decided. It is an invitation to treat.

- Invoice: Invoice is often sent after a contract is formed. It is in fact a request for payment, neither offer nor invitation to treat.


- CIPS study guide page 29-32

- What Is an Invitation to Treat?

LO 1, AC 1.1